The following sources are useful to the surrogate IP rights dialogue and digital cultural heritage. Most of these articles are either referenced in this blog or in my other academic writings. Others have been included for your enjoyment.



National Library of Scotland to put third of collection online,” BBC News (2015)

Permissions, A Survival Guide: Blunt Talk about Art as Intellectual Property, Susan M. Bielstein (2006)

The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction, Walter Benjamin (1936)

Digital Copyright Slider: Is it Protected by Copyright (For works first published in the U.S.A.), Michael Brown & ALA Office for Information Technology Policy (2012)

Art Image Copyright and Licensing: Compilation and Summary of Museum Policies, Melissa Brown and Kenneth D. Crews, Columbia University (2010)

Art Image Copyright and Licensing: Terms and Conditions Governing Reproduction and Distribution, Melissa Brown and Kenneth D. Crews, Columbia University (2010)


New Online Openness Lets Museums Share Works With The World,” Michael Cannell (2015)

Wikipedia slapped with National Portrait Gallery copyright order,” Marc Chacksfield, Techradar (2009)

Slowly improving Copyright clarity,” Seb Chan, Cooper Hewitt Labs (2015)

Cultural Institutions, Digitisation and Copyright Reform, Andrew Christie (2007)

Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for the Visual Arts, College Art Association (2015)

Keeping the World Safe from Naked-Chicks-in-Art Refrigerator Magnets: The Plot to Control Art Images in the Public Domain through Copyrights in Photographic and Digital Reproductions, Kathleen Connolly Butler (1998-1999)

Control of Museum Art Images: The Reach and Limits of Copyright and Licensing, Kenneth D. Crews and Melissa A. Brown (2011)

Copyright, Museums, and Licensing of Art Images, Kenneth D. Crews, KRESS (2010-12)


Copyright and Cultural Memory: Digital Conference Proceedings,” Ronan Deazley and Andrea Wallace, eds., (2017)

Google’s quest to make art available to everyone was foiled by copyright concerns,” Caitlin Dewey, The Washington Post (2015)

RightsStatements.org: Why We Need It, What It Is (and Isn’t) and What Does It Mean for the DPLA Network and Beyond?,” Video of DPLA Workshop (2016)

Guggenheim Museum donates 100 master-class works of art to Wikipedia,” Jackie Dove, TNW News (2015)

The Google Art Heist,” Maureen Dowd, The New York Times (2015)


From Original to Copy and Back Again, James Elkins (1993)

Art History and the Criticism of Computer-Generated Images, James Elkins (1994)

Willing to Share?” Ellen Euler, Anne Klammt and Oliver Rack, Deutsche Digitale Bibliothek (2017)

The New Renaissance: Report of the Comite des Sages, Publications Office of the European Union (2011)



Flickr Commons

MCN 2012: Opening Access to Works in the Public Domain at Yale University, Melissa Gold Fournier, John ffrench, Chris Edwards (2012)


Museum Catalogues in the Digital Age: A Final Report on the Getty Foundation’s Online Scholarly Catalogue Initiative (OSCI),” Getty Foundation (CC-BY, 2017)

The Apollo Archives Hit Flickr, Total Awesomeness Ensues,” Taylor Glasgock (2015)

What’s the cost of curating content in the digital age?,” Neil Grindley (2015)

@MedievalReacts and the Weird, Money-Making World of Parody Twitter Accounts,” Joel Golby, Vice Magazine (2015)

Rijksstudio: Make Your Own Masterpiece!,” Peter Gorgels, MW2013 (2013)

“Guide to Finding Interesting Public Domain Works Online,” The Public Domain Review


Public Domain Art in an Age of Easier Mechanical Reproducibility, Kenneth Hamma, D-Lib Magazine (November 2005)

A Museum at the Forefront of Digitization,” Stephen Heyman, The New York Times (2015)

Copyright and Cultural Institutions: Guidelines for Digitization for U.S. Libraries, Archives, and Museums, Peter B. Hirtle, Emily Hudson, Andrew T. Kenyon, Cornell University Library (2009-10)


Copyright notice: digital images, photographs and the internet,” Intellectual Property Office (2015)



This is how you photograph a million dead plants without losing your mind,” Sarah Kaplan, The Washington Post (2017)

Images of Works of Art in Museum Collections: The Experience of Open Access (A study of 11 Museums), Kristin Kelly, Prepared for The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation (2013)

National Treasures: Google Art Project unlocks riches of world’s galleries,” Philip Kennicott, The Washington Post (2011)

What Happened to the Readymake: Duchamp Chess Pieces?,” Scott Kildall, Scott Kildall New Media Art and Research (2015)

A review of a year of open access images at Te Papa, Adrian Kingston and Philip Edgar, Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, New Zealand (2015)

“Vital information could be lost in ‘digital dark age’ warns professor,” Sarah Knapton, The Telegraph (2015)

When is the public domain not the public domain?,” Naomi Korn, Chartered Institute of Library and Information Professionals (CILIP)

Museums Are Now Able to Digitize Thousands of Artifacts in Just Hours,” Max Kutner, Smithsonian.com (2015)


“Get Downloading – 20 great GLAM websites for free high resolution images,” Victoria Leachman, Te Papa’s Blog (2016)

Images & Data from the Rijksmuseum via BitTorrent, Matthew D. Lincoln (2015)

Public Domain Protection: Uses and Reuses of Public Domain Works,” Monica Lupascu, Copy-me (2015)


The Digitization of Cultural Heritage: Originality, Derivative Works and (Non) Original Photographs, Thomas Margoni (2014)

Why is the UK’s Intellectual Property Office Praising National Portrait Gallery’s Copyfraud Claims over Public Domain Images?,” Mike Masnick, Techdirt (2016)

Smithsonian American Art Museum launches effort to create national art database,” Peggy McGlone, The Washington Post (2015)

Carnegie Museum of Art Makes its Provenance Accessible and Interactive,” Allison Meier, Hyperallergic (2015)

How Viral History Accounts are Hurting the Past They Purport to Celebrate,” Allison Meier, Hyperallergic (2015)

Beautiful Data II, metaLAB (at) Harvard

Why Can’t We Take Pictures in Art Museums?,” Carolina A. Miranda, Art News (2013)


Digital Dark Age, On the Media, National Public Radio (2015)


The National Gallery Makes 25,000 Images of Artwork Freely Available Online,” Open Culture (2013)

The British Library Puts 1,000,000 Images into the Public Domain, Making Them Free to Reuse & Remix,” Open Culture (2013)


Wikimedia Foundation, Wikimedia Deutschland urge Reiss Engelhorn Museum to Reconsider suit over public domain works of art,” Michelle Paulson and Geoff Brigham, Wikimedia Foundation (2015)

Democratizing the Rijksmuseum, Joris Pekel, Europeana (2015)

Images for the Future: Lessons learned from 7 years of digitisation, Joris Pekel, Europeana (2015)

Making a big impact on a small budget – How the LSH Museums shared their collection with the world, Joris Pekel, Europeana (2015)

The Public Domain vs. the Museum: The Limits of Copyright and Reproductions of Two-dimensional Works of Art, Grischka Petri (2014)

The Cost of Digitising Europe’s Cultural Heritage A Report for the Comité des Sages of the European Commission, Nick Poole, the Collections Trust (2010)

In a dark corner of the Trans-Pacific Partnership lurks some pretty nasty copyright law,” David Post, The Washington Post (2015)



Second Hand Images: The Role of Surrogates in Artistic and Cultural Exchange, Helene E. Roberts (1994)

Rijksstudio at the Rijksmuseum


“The Only Way is Open,” Merete Sanderhoof, Medium (2017)

Sharing is Caring, Merete Sanderhoff, ed., Statens Museum fur Kunst, Copenhagen (2014)

Righted Museum, by Mario Santamaría

“France to Digitize Its Own Literary Works,” Scott Sayare, The New York Times (2009)

The good news and the bad news from the Met are all one tale,” James Schulman, LinkedIn (2017)

Masterworks for One and All,” Nina Siegal, The New York Times (2013)

Creating a Digital Smithsonian: Digitization Strategic Plan, Smithsonian

Digitization Program Office Blog, Smithsonian

Please Chime In: The Challenges and Opportunities of Participatory Culture,” Rob Stein, Indianapolis Museum of Art (2011)

New Digital Archaeology Effort Attempts to Capture Cultural Heritage Before It’s Gone,” Jillian Steinhauer, Hyperallergic (2015)

Yellow Milkmaid Syndrome Tumblr, Sarah Stierch

Art and Copyright, Simon Stokes (2012)

What Digitization Will Do for the Future of Museums,” Joseph Stromberg, Smithsonian.com (2013)


Copyright: promoting the Progress of Science and useful Arts by preventing access to 105-year-old quarry maps,” Mike Taylor (2015)

Reuse of Digitized Content: Chasing an Orphan Work Through the UK’s New Copyright Licensing Scheme,” Melissa Terras (2014-15)

“Open Access to collections: the making and using of open digitised cultural content,” Melissa Terras (2015)

Unlimited Possibilities,” Ming Tu, Harvard Art Museums (2015)



U.S. Copyright Office, Legal Issues in Mass Digitization: A Preliminary Analysis and Discussion Document, U.S. Copyright Office (2011)

Copyright.gov, United States Copyright Office Fair Use Index


The Problem of the Yellow Milkmaid: A Business Model Perspective on Open Metadata, Harry Verwayen, Martijn Arnoldus, Peter B. Kaufman, Europeana (2011)


Display At Your Own Risk, Andrea Wallace and Ronan Deazley (2016)

Display At Your Own Risk: An experimental exhibition of digital cultural heritage, Andrea Wallace and Ronan Deazley (2016)

How to Destroy Special Collections with Social Media in 3 Easy Steps: A guide for researchers and librarians,” Sarah Werner, Rare Book School (2015)

It’s History, Not a Viral Feed,” Sarah Werner, Rare Book School (2015)

Wikimedia Foundation, Wikimedia Deustchland urge Reiss Engelhorn Museum to Reconsider suit over public domain works of art,” Wikimedia (2015)

Wikimedia Commons

Swiping a Priceless Antiquity … With a Scanner and a 3-D Printer,” Charly Wilder, New York Times (2016)

Nefertiti 3-D Scanning Project in Germany Raises Doubts,” Charly Wilder, New York Tomes (2016)



Rights & Reproductions: The Handbook for Cultural Institutions, Edited by Anne M. Young, The American Alliance of Museums and the Indianapolis Museum of Art (2015)